Monday, April 12, 2010

Cartograms Take 2!

Defining Cartograms

Cartogram Central
http://www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/projects/Cartogram_Central/index.html 
TYPES:
NON-CONTIGUOUS CARTOGRAMS - geographic objects do not have to maintain connectivity with their adjacent objects
CONTIGUOUS CARTOGRAMS - true- topology is maintained (the objects remain connected with each other) but this causes great distortion in shape
DORLING CARTOGARMS - maintains neither shape, topology nor object centroids

Examples of Cartograms

World Population
http://www.worldmapper.org/countrycartograms/#

More about it - Health Geographics - http://www.ij-healthgeographics.com/content/6/1/48

Election Maps
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/election/2008/

http://declanbutler.info/blog/?p=141

http://cjcs.com/tib/1374/track-election-night-2008-with-this-electoral-cartogram/

Dynamic Cartogram Visualization of Presidential Election
http://mapcontext.com/autocarto/web/documents/AutoCarto2008/Brachman.pdf

Read More About IT (link through at Temple Libraries)
35 Years of Cartograms

___________

Types of Thematic Maps Discussed in Class

Dot Density Maps
Concentric Circle Maps
Choropleth Maps

Monday, April 5, 2010

Interactive Maps, Spatial Data Inventory, Google Maps


Interactive Map Links

Homicides in NY City

http://projects.nytimes.com/crime/homicides/map

Geography of the Recession

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/03/03/us/20090303_LEONHARDT.html

Food Stamp Usage

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/11/28/us/20091128-foodstamps.html

Gasoline Prices

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/06/09/business/20080609_GAS_GRAPHIC.html?#tab2

NY Times Immigration Explorer

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/03/10/us/20090310-immigration-explorer.html?exampleSessionId=1236781830615&exampleUserLabel=nytimes

Where workers come from

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/04/07/us/20090407-immigration-occupation.html

Parking tickets in NY

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/11/26/nyregion/20081128_PARKING.html
______________

Spatial Data Inventory

This week's lab exercise will provide students with a hands-on experience conducting an inventory of a thematic feature on or near Temple University's Main Campus. There is a long tradition of field work to gather spatial information that includes surveying, identifying features, and describing the attributes of features found in the landscape.

We will review the use of Google applications, including documents and maps, to depict the locations of features that you identify through your survey. We will also discuss examples of inventories that can serve as a model for your survey exercise.

Here are some links to thematic maps that may be of interest related to the themes we discuss in class.

National Trust for Historic Preservation - Map tool for locating registered historic structures.

http://www.preservationnation.org/map/

Sadie's Trashcan Map of Fairmount

The Trashcan Map

_______________

Creating Google Maps

You will be creating maps using Google Maps from the survey data set you are creating.  Here are resources for learning more about how to make Google Maps.

Google Maps Mania is a resource that shows how users are creating maps, adding new applications, and integrating Google Maps with other social media tools. Here are a few posts from the site that illustrate the types of mash-ups, or map creations, you can make with Google Maps.

Google Map Making Tips

DIY Cartography's post on creating custom map symbols may be of use in creating your map.

http://makingmaps.net/2007/10/18/custom-map-symbols-in-google-maps/

Google instructions for how to create them are here.

Google instructions for how to convert spreadsheets into maps here.

Google map tutorials here.

Google maps Youtube instructions here.

Sunday, March 28, 2010

Maps and Data Spring 2010



Designing maps involves making decisions about how to visualize spatial information in ways that are readable to an intended audience or user, accessible to intended populations, and fair representations of the data drawing on a disclosed method of classification, interpretation or generalization. Today we will review some basic tenants of map design including conventions of representing different features, determining color schemes, and map layout and graphic quality.

It is also important to understand how maps themselves can form parts of series of maps, or archives. In some cases, maps are visualizations of archives. Metadata is data about data. Metadata can pertain to the characteristics of a map itself (if it is an archive) or to the data set drawn from in creating the map. Examples of metadata characteristics for the map include: date it was created, author or institution that created the map, projection used. Metadata related to the visualized information on the map could include: date and source of the data set, database schema, and database storage.

We are going to examine a number of data considerations related to maps: a) data and design, b) map metadata, and c) data source metadata.

Useful resource links are below:

Metadata

USGS Discussion pertaining to maps
http://geology.usgs.gov/tools/metadata/tools/doc/faq.html

PASDA Discussion for data sets in PA
http://www.pasda.psu.edu/help/faqmetadata.asp
Creating Metadata Tutorial
Online Mapping

Map Design

ESRI's elements of map design
http://blogs.esri.com/Support/blogs/mappingcenter/pages/learn-about-the-categories.aspx

Cynthia Brewer's Colorbrewer
http://colorbrewer2.org/

John Krygier on design-data-visualization:
http://makingmaps.net/2008/02/05/more-principles-of-map-design/
http://makingmaps.net/2007/08/28/perceptual-scaling-of-map-symbols
http://makingmaps.net/2009/06/12/cartominutiae-combined-symbols-on-maps/
http://makingmaps.net/2007/08/16/how-useful-is-tufte-for-making-maps/

Cartographic Data Modeling Laboratory - University of Pennsylvania
http://cml.upenn.edu/
Mural Data Base

PASDA - Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access (Part of National Spatial Data Infrastructure )
http://128.118.47.58/default.asp

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Monday, March 1, 2010

Google Maps and MashUps

This week, you will begin a three lab sequence that involves learning how to locate landmarks, places, and features using a coordinate system; learning how to assess the accuracy or "ground truth of those features and places; and learning how to create maps using Google Maps from a survey data set that you will create. 

Today we will review some map resources that can serve as a guide for the final maps you create during the course of the lab sequence.

Google Maps Mania is a resource that shows how users are creating maps, adding new applications, and integrating Google Maps with other social media tools. Here are a few posts from the site that illustrate the types of mash-ups, or map creations, you can make with Google Maps.

Google Map Making Tips

DIY Cartography's post on creating custom map symbols may be of use in creating your map.

http://makingmaps.net/2007/10/18/custom-map-symbols-in-google-maps/

Google instructions for how to create them are here.

Google instructions for how to convert spreadsheets into maps here.

Google map tutorials here.

Google maps Youtube instructions here.

Monday, February 22, 2010

Atlases as References Map Systems

An Atlas can be defined as a collection of maps of places, regions or countries, traditionally bound together in book form. Today, atlases can also be digital and available online. Here are some online atlases showing regions and countries of North America, including Canada, the United States of America, and Mexico.

Canadian National Atlas

National Geographic Map Machine

National Geographic Geopolitical Atlas

National Atlas of Mexico

Digital Spaces of Mexico

Atlases often depict thematic information, using place, region or world reference systems as base maps for displaying data pertaining to places. Here are some examples of thematic atlas projects online.

World Health Organization Global Health Atlas

Historic Atlas of New Mexico

Monday, February 15, 2010

Types of Maps and Map Terms

Part 1: Useful tools

Glossary of Cartographic Terms - UTexas Library
GIS Glossary - CSISS GIS Cookbook
GIS Glossary - GIS Lounge
Abbreviations for GIS, Cartography and Remote Sensing - UC Berkeley Library

Part 2: Reference and Thematic Maps

Reference maps, also known as general maps, help us navigate by showing the locations of features in areas, regions, places, and buildings. Features often include roads, locations of specific structures, bodies of water, landscape features, and infrastructure. Commonly used reference maps include topographic maps, street maps, and maps of buildings.

Planimetric - Line map, showing horizontal position of mapped features
Topographic - Overview from USGS
Nautical charts - Click here for NOAA's online Chart Viewer
Census Boundary Maps
County Boundaries - Click here for atlas of historic boundaries

Thematic maps represent specific kinds of information. Examples of common thematic maps include population maps, weather maps, habitat maps, political maps, and land use maps.

3. Wayfinding - using and creating reference maps

4. All of a kind - using and creating thematic maps

Part 3. Topographic maps

Topographic maps is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of elevation. Elevation is depicted using contour lines that connect equal levels of elevation according to a ratio of actual to illustrated elevation. Topographic maps depict both physical and human features in a given area. Many countries, including the U.S. have developed a series of maps that represent area at consistent scales for the entire land coverage of their country boundaries.

Click here to see scales of coverage used by the USGS in it's topographic maps series of the United States.

For more information about topographic maps see:

http://geology.isu.edu/geostac/Field_Exercise/topomaps/index.htm

Investigate these categories on the website:

What is a Map?
Using Topographic Maps
Map Scales
Reference Datum
Map Projections
Distortions
Grid Systems
Geographic Coordinate System
Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System
State Plane Coordinate System
Public Land Survey

Part 4: The National Atlas of the U.S.

The National Atlas allows Internet users to examine combined reference maps series for the entire U.S. through layering data, reference information, and features for specified locations.

Here is a link to the viewer: http://nmviewogc.cr.usgs.gov/viewer.htm

The National Map viewer allows users to see elevation, hydrology, and vegetation along with cultural features on the landscape including political, jurisdictional and monitoring locations and boundaries; transportation; and structures.

The National Atlas includes topographic layers for the 1:250,000 scale; but the 7 1/2 minute series (what are commonly referred to as quadrangle maps) are not available using the National Atlas.

The National Atlas allows the user to pinpoint latitude and longitude with great precision using a mouse. This means that one can examine the features shown on the atlas at a specific setting. For instance, if you want to know what both the physical and cultural characteristics of Boulder Dam are, you can use the National Atlas to examine features at or around the facility. (36.07 lat, -114.735 long)

Part 5: Resource Links

Milestones in the History of Thematic Cartography, Statistical Graphics and Data Visualization

This resource provides a comprehensive view of the history of cartography, with examples of maps created throughout the ages and background information about the contexts within which those maps, visualizations and map making technologies were created. Explore each time period, click on the images and stories found throughout each time line, and read more about the history of creating thematic maps as a means of visualizing data.

Timeline Index of Cartography

This timeline provides a summary of the key innovations in cartography that occurred through the ages. Follow the timeline to chart the history of map making and uses.

The Newberry Library's Consise Bibliography of the History of Cartography
The Newberry Library is an independent library located in Chicago known for its extensive collections in cartography as well as other historic archives. The bibliography is a set of resources that is used by cartographers, geographers, and other scholars to conduct scholarly research on the history of cartography.


Terms


Location
Environment
Space
Place
Area
Region
Geographic Information, Spatial Information
Attribute or characteristic data